HTML

HTML
HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, is the backbone of the World Wide Web. It was developed by Tim Berners-Lee, a physicist at CERN, in 1990 as a way to markup and link between text documents. In the 1990’s, it expanded to include more opportunities to define the graphical layout of a page and to include opportunities for inline graphics.

The key distinguishing characteristic of HTML is that it is not a full-fledged programming language. Its primary application is to describe the layout and appearance of a page, which would make it more akin to PostScript than to Perl or C. Pure HTML documents do not contain conditional logic, for example, and they cannot respond to user input. They simply tell a client program how to display a mixture of text and graphics.

Even given HTML’s simplicities, it is possible to use it for a number of unethical activities. The EMBED command allows o­ne to hide malicious code or executables. In addition, many HTML pages are simply designed to present links, or to automatically redirect themselves, to malware applications

Because of HTML’s limitations, a number of different technologies have been developed to extend its capabilities. The DHTML model which integrates embedded Javascript code and the DOM (Document Object Model) is a client-side way to add interactivity to HTML pages. In addition to this, there are a number of server-side methods of embedding code into an HTML page which the server can then intercept and execute to generate a customized HTML page to the browser. These technologies include Microsoft’s Active Server Pages, Adobe’s Cold Fusion, and the essentially open source PHP. In addition to this, applications in a range of languages can also be made to output HTML pages to browsers.